Monday, July 11, 2011

Starter Strips Versus Foundation

In a tradional box hive you have removable frames within which the bees build the honeycomb. They use the comb for every function of the hive including storing pollen, egg laying and brood rearing, and the creation of honey. Commercial and convential beekeeping has adopted the practice of placing sheets of wax, or foundation, into the frame. The foundation has an imprint of the hexagonal pattern of the comb, and the bees then "draw out" this comb with their own wax, thus completeing the comb. Most wax foundation has some sort of support built into it, such as cross-wires of some kind. Some foundation isn't even wax at all, but plastic.
The use of these types of foundation came about as an attempt to reducing the amount of "work" bees had to do building their own comb, and instead concentrate their energies into honey production. It's strictly a one-sided expression of human greed when it comes down to it. Allowing the bees to build their own comb is a critical componet to supporting the vitality and health of the bees. We aren't doing them any favors by taking shortcuts in our beekeeping.
By using starter strips instead of foundation we allow the bees to act out and fufill their natural insticts and tendicies. A start strip can be many things, including wax, but using a stick of some kind is the best. Coating it with beeswax promotes the bees building their own comb down from the strip. Here's a good introduction to the use of starter strips from Kirk Anderson (AKA "Kirkobeeo") from Backwards Beekeepers:

I have never had any luck with stir sticks because the ones I find are always too think. Likewise, popsicle sticks or tounge depressors don't fit either, and balsam wood is to soft and wobbley. So, with the help of my knowledgeable father-in-law, we milled our own.
To make the strips you need some 1x12 wood stock, which is 3/4 inch wide. That width dimention will actually be the vertical demention of the strip as it hangs down from the top of the frame. Using a table saw you then cut the stock to a thickness (or "thin-ness" in this case) of roughly 3/16". Finish by triming to a length of 16 7/8in.
Unless you are very acurate in your cutting, each strip will have some minor variation to its thickness and length because of how small the measurements are. This is okay, because most wooden frames also have some degree of variation in them. One strip that might be slightly too thick or long for one frame might fit perfectly in another frame, just try more than one. Also, each strip should fit pretty snug; they should not be loose or pull out easily, and you shouldn't have to worry about using any glue. They should hold in place just fine. This setup was designed to work with grooved frames; it's not meant for frames with removable wedges, although they still might work. But, if you're not using foundation you won't want wedge or split frames anyway.

Here is what a homemade starter strip looks like installed into the top of a grooved frame...

And here is what beautiful, natural, bee-made wax and comb looks like, built off the starter strips...

This is a great frame because you can see the pollen (the darkish stuff in the cells), the nectar (the wet, glistening stuff in the cells) and capped honey towards the top. Fun!

This last picture shows a little better how the bees don't just build the comb off the starter strip, but actually incorporate the strip within the comb for greater strength.

Tuesday, July 5, 2011

Enter Varroa Destructor

Despite battling against small hive beetle for some time now, I have been thankful to have avoided dealing with perhaps what can be regarded as the honeybee's most devastating pest - the Varroa mite. Properly named varroa destructor (I know, charming isn't it?) this wee beastie of a tick is responsible for some of the greatest losses in honeybee colonies, and a full-blown infestation is often cited as a factor in Colony Collapse Disorder. Gone unchecked varroa can destroy a colony in as little as three years. The rise of varroa in the US has also given rise to some of the most pervasive chemical use in commercial and even small-scale beekeeping. In an all too typical approach, we have thrown chemical and miticides at the varroa with little positive benefit. Some even fear we are establishing mites who are tolerant of the toxins and continue to flourish.
A varroa mite on a honeybee larva. From Wikipedia.
When I pulled out the monitor tray in one of my hives I was looking for small hive beetle, which I did find a few dead ones of those. But amid the pollen and wax flakes were two or three reddish-brown specks - the unmistakable remains of the varroa mite. I must admit I was somewhat crestfallen when I saw them. I had been naively thinking I might get through my first year without the mite invading my hives. But, alas, it is not to be. The mite is here and now I must deal with it.

So what next? I shall continue to monitor the mite numbers within the hives and do all I can to learn what my options are, although I am unshakably committed to a noninvasive approach as much as possible.

I started my hives with 50% foundation in my frames and 50% with only starter strips. There is a lot of discussion out there about how the factory pressed wax foundation forces the bees to build cells that are larger than those that they would naturally build themselves. This can result in higher mite counts within a hive because the mites gestate within the cells. Larger cells allows for more time for even more mites to hatch. Subsequently, there is also a lot of talk of regressing the bees back down to a smaller cell size by letting them build their own comb. I am glad that in the second hive bodies of both of my initial hives I went with 90% foundationless frames - the bees have built their own comb beautifully. But it seems that I will have to start switching out the frames built on foundation for ones that are bee-made or give them starter strips to start from scratch with. This is one of those areas that I am still trying to educate myself in.

It saddens me that a creature as remarkable and gentle as the honeybee must endure such trials as pests and pesticides, but I think it is our responsibility, and indeed, our honor, to assist them in overcoming these hardships. The honeybee is a creature of pure devotion and love, and we are their consorts.

Monday, June 6, 2011

Better than expected

So I got back to the hive to take a look at the small hive beetle issue. I'm glad to report that I could not see any larva in the frames, but I can't rule out the possibility that they were there. But, like I said, I didn't see any. There were a few adults running around, one or two I snagged, the rest will hopefully fall through the screened bottom board or be herded by the bees.
Once again I pulled every frame with no problems with the bees. I used my smoker but that was it. No stings! The bees are really great.
Less drone activity going on today.

Saturday, June 4, 2011

Small Hive Beetle Battle Marches On

I had a very good inspection of the first hive today. Feeder jar was about one-third full and the bees seemed to be doing well. When I first approached the hive I noticed a tremendous amount of activity around the entrance. At first I thought it must be because of the heat, but then I noticed that there were dozens of drones coming and going from the hive. Those fellas are big! And they're loud, too; kinda like horsefly loud.
I felt very successful. I pulled and looked at every frame in the brood box, with no protective clothing and no stings. I took my time, kept my nerves in check, and things went great. I moved a full frame of brood, etc. up into the upper hive box, so we'll see how that goes.
The second hive was experiencing some slight bearding at the entrance. This is when it is hot enough inside the hive that the bees cluster on the outside. I opened the top to discover they had emptied their feeder jar, so I will have to make them some more of their honey-tea and bring it back in the morning.
Alas, when I pulled the monitor tray I was upset to find small hive beetle larva squirming in the oil trap. There were only two or three, but I'm concerned. I did not have time to inspect that hive at that point, so I will do so when I return with the feed. I'm really hoping I do not find larva in the frames. I hate when a good day ends on a sour note. I can only keep my fingers crossed and hope and pray for the best.

Here's a video from Spikenard Honeybee Sanctuary. In it you see some strong drone activity very similar to what I witnessed at my hive today, only I observed more of them flying off and returning to the hive:

Sunday, May 29, 2011

Recent visit

So a quick update here,
I took a look at the hives and they seem to be doing well. I must admit that I was feeling a little nervous because of getting stung the last time, and I felt a little more jumpy. Kinda like getting back on a bicycle after having a fall. I'm glad to say that everything went well, though.
Both hives seem to have the SHB numbers under control, and the swarm cell I saw the other day is still uncapped, and I don't think it contained an egg.
When I pulled a frame from the bigger hive it was quite heavy, and when it came out all the way could see why. Even though the bees had not fully drawn all the comb to fill the frame, it was predominately drone brood, both capped and hatched, and a number of the furry blokes were hanging out on the frame. My nerves were still bugging me, so I made the stupid mistake of tilting the frame away from me, instead of flipping it around. Because the bottom and parts of the sides of the comb were not attached to the frame the comb itself began to bend and tilt out, getting close to breaking and falling out. However, I corrected myself quickly enough and avoided certain disaster. I felt pretty stupid about it, though.
I now realize that I think it will be worth reinforcing the foundationless frames with toothpicks, just as I had with the frames that were filled with wax sheet foundation.
Toothpicks, broken in half, and inserted through the little holes in the sides of the frame through the wax.
The bees reinforce this themselves by molding the wax sheets around the toothpicks and bridging the space between the edge of the wax and the inside edge of the frame. I think it might be worth inserting the toothpicks into the the frames that will have starter strips and no foundation. I am curious to see how the bees will react when they get to the toothpicks as they build the comb down.
Both hives had some activity in the upper hive body, but not a whole lot. I hope that in another week I should see more comb building going on.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Love at first sting.

What a difference twenty-four hours can make. The beetle traps came early, so I made a trip to the hives to install them. In the process, I also took a look at the monitor tray to check on the beetle drop (how many beetles or larva that were falling down through the screened bottom board), and I'm pleased to say there were only two or three. I hope that this is good news, and not just because the beetles are hiding. However, when I opened up the top to install the traps I did not see too many around the frames, either. I think moving the hives into the sun made a big difference.
My lighter had ran out of fuel, so I did the whole thing without smoke. It went pretty well, except during my inspection of the second (larger) hive. The bees' energy seemed more agitated, which could have been due to any number of reasons. Perhaps the beetles, or perhaps the torrential rain we had had the night before.
I pulled a couple of frames, but when I was turning one around I moved my fingers too much and got on top of a bee who got mad about it and stung me. I managed to reposition the frame back into the hive (I had intended on switching it to the opposite side of the box anyway) without causing any more commotion. I took a minute to let the girls settle down and then put everything back together. My one and only sting during an inspection, with no protective gear or smoke - I feel pretty good about it.
I also saw what does look like a queen cell in one of the outer frames of the lower hive box on the smaller hive. It was uncapped with no egg. I'll have to keep an eye on it. With that hive I also swapped two of the outer frames from the lower box with two center frames of the upper box to help draw the bees up there a little more.
In summary, I'm feeling much better about the state of things, but I'll just have to see how things go. Here's a video on my sting:

Monday, May 23, 2011

Towards the End of May

So I have to be honest; I'm feeling a little moody. Having to deal with Small Hive Beetle has been a bummer, and I'm worried about the bees. I have confidence that the stronger hive will manage fine, but I have concerns about the smaller colony. Their beetle numbers are higher, and even though I have installed a screened bottom board which is helping, I'm still worried. I have some oil traps on the way that will fit between the frames, and I hope those will also help. I have also been reading and hearing about not opening the hives too much, because this counteracts the work the bees have done chasing the beetles into corners and keeping them there. When you pull the frames the beetles make a run for it and some get away, who in turn then reproduce.
I have also taken a little gamble and stopped feeding. Both colonies now have their second hive body in place, and although some would say it is premature to stop feeding, I think they will be okay. They've been bringing in nectar fine. The queen might also need some time to play catch up with egg laying; if all the cell space is being occupied by nectar, she won't have room for eggs. The bees need to keep building comb. We'll see how it goes.
In other news I will be attending a showing of the wonderful film Queen of the Sun which explores issues of Colony Colapse Disorder. I have seen it once already, and I highly recommend it.

Thursday, May 19, 2011

Hive Inspection Videos

So here are some videos of my recent visit with the bees. The main goal was to take a look at the Small Hive Beetle situation, and remove any I found. Audio is a little weak, and camera angle not the best, but otherwise I'm glad I managed it.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

A good, but mixed, inspection.

Note the bee to right with the dark grey pollen on her legs. Where did she get that from, I wonder!
Despite discovering that my two hives had Small Hive Beetle (SHB), my most recent inspection went well. The bees are storing nectar and pollen in good quantities, and I even saw some capped honey already. 
As for brood development, both hives had many eggs - some even in the fresh comb built from the starter strips - larva was observed and some capped brood. I did not pull the middle most frames because when I noticed the SHB I did not want to disturb the heart of the colony too much. However, given the presence of SHB I will need to look at those frames soon.
It was wonderful to see the beautiful natural comb built by the bees! Comb that is most recently made is almost pure white; it is lovely to see.  

Fresh, pure white comb.

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Small Hive Beetle Discovered

Small Hive Beetle

So I have a problem. This little critter is a Small Hive Beetle, and I have now seen at least two or three of them in each hive. The beetles themselves are not a massive problem but their larva are. They eat through the honeycomb and can ruin entire frames of comb, honey, and pollen.
I've been looking around on some forums and it seems like one of the best tactics is to move the hives into full sun, which mine are definitely not, and I've been worried about this already. Turns out the shade and cool climate near the edge of a wood is not the best spot. I'll have to do this soon, ideally before I add an additional hive body to either hive. It also sounds like I'm going to have to inspect the hives more than once a week for a little while and hopefully keep the beetles from getting too destructive. I also need to add screened bottom boards to the hives. Normally that tactic is used to combat Varroa mites, but it should work against the SHB, too.

Hive Inspection Video

So the weekend was the pits, rain and lots of cold temperatures. Today was nice enough to get out and the check the hives. I've got a dinky little video camera so I thought I'd grab a clip. It didn't turn out quite so well.... It was pretty windy so a small breeze just blew the thing over. At least my 3 year-old daughter was having a good time! The hives looked pretty good by the way.

Sunday, May 15, 2011

My first lessons in beekeeping.

On Easter weekend of 2011 I installed two packages of bees into two ready and waiting Langstroth hives. The hive bodies had been given to me by a family friend whose brother used to be a beekeeper but gave it up. The hive equipment had been sitting in a barn for a while, and a few boxes had become the homes of mice, so they were in rough shape. I took what could be salvaged, burned the rest, and cleaned up what I thought I could use.
Dadant, Hamillton, Illinois.
I purchased the bees through Dadant and my son and I took a very pleasant, if not somewhat long, road trip up to Hamillton, Illinois to pick them up. The folks at Dadant were very helpful and friendly, and helped us get the bees situated in the car for the ride home.  When we got to the beeyard I set about getting things ready to install the bees. Although I had read quite a bit about installing bees, as well as watching a number of videos, I was a little nervous about getting it right. My son got suited up in his new beesuit while I decided to brave it out without any protective clothing.
Installing the first package went very smoothly with no issues, and I felt pretty good about how things were going.
When it came time to install the second package, things got a little trickier. When I removed the queen cage I noticed that there were already attendants on the outside of the screen, so I think the bees had already formed a bond with her, giving them something to be protective of. I also made a mistake of not replacing the lid over the hole in the top of the package. I didn't realize I was making this mistake because the package hadn't come with a lid to replace in the first place. I simply had removed the syrup can. The bees immediately began to come out of the package, even after I had sprayed them down with sugar water, and when I knocked the box down to get the bees in a clump to pour out they got pretty pissed. Bees were taking to the air rapidly and I got stung about four times, mostly on my left arm. However, to add insult to injury, I got chased for a bit by at least one or two more bees when I tried to distance myself from the package. My poor son had to witness what must have looked like his father experiencing a psychotic episode as I dashed about the area, swatting at my head and swearing profusely. Not exactly gentle beekeeping....
Notice the slightly concerned look on my face? See all the bees flying around? Yeah, this just before I started getting stung.
Once things had calmed down I decided I needed to suit up to finish the job. So, with jacket, veil, and gloves I got the rest of the second package into the hive. I also set up 2 gallon feeder pails but I didn't like how much liquid ran out before the pressure equalized. It made me really nervous to think about what would happen if 2 gallons of liquid was slowly but steadily running into the hive, right on top of the new queen, so I switched them out with smaller glass jars with lids that I punched smaller holes into. They have to be refilled more frequently, but they've been working out great. The bees have really needed the supplemental feeding with all the rainy days we've had this spring and early summer.
A look at the feeder jar. I've since switched to an even larger glass container. 24 oz I think.
A few days later I checked to make sure the queens were out and doing fine, which they were, and both hives have done very well since and are expanding nicely.

With the job done I headed home...